Bird Families

On the biology of the yellow-bellied warbler (Phylloscopus Akanthopneuste nitidus Blyth


Rod Penochka - Phylloscopus - very small birds with a straight or slightly cut tail (unlike crickets and small warblers). The eyebrow is light, under it there is a blurry dark strip. Males and females are outwardly indistinguishable. They differ from ridicule by a sloping forehead, which gives the head a somewhat pointed shape.

The nest is a hut made of grass on the ground or low in the bushes (in some species it can be arranged on a tree) in a forest with dense undergrowth, bush, less often in reeds. Often, the details of the structure of the nest differ in closely related species, which can help in identification. In clutch there are 3-8 white eggs, in most species with reddish spots of eggs. In late summer and autumn, they often roam in flocks of tits.

Chickweed sometimes are not at all afraid of humans, especially in the tundra, where they sometimes peck mosquitoes from people sitting motionless by the fire.

There are 15 species in Russia, many of which are better distinguished by their voices.

Willow Warbler - Phylloscopus trochilus
Chiffchaff warbler - Phylloscopus collybitus
Caucasian wreath - Phylloscopus lorenzii
Ratchet warbler - Phylloscopus sibilatrix
Talovka Warbler - Phylloscopus borealis
Green Warbler - Phylloscopus trochiloides
Yellow-bellied warbler - Phylloscopus nitidus
Warbler-Warbler - Phylloscopus inornatus
Korolkovaya warbler - Phylloscopus proregulus
Light-headed Warbler - Phylloscopus occipitalis
Thick-billed Warbler - Phylloscopus schwarzi
Brown Warbler - Phylloscopus fuscatus
Indian Warbler - Phylloscopus griseolus
Pale-footed Warbler - Phylloscopus tenellipes
Sakhalin Warbler - Phylloscopus borealoides

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Pencils are small with a slender build. Compared to warblers (Sylvia) they have a shorter tail and longer legs. The beak is thin. In general, warblers are painted in very inconspicuous and low-contrast colors, and many species are very similar to each other. The plumage is predominantly yellow, green or brown, the underside is usually lighter. Some Asian species are characterized by light framing of the wings and tail, as well as light stripes above the eyes. A common feature of all species is the absence of sexual dimorphism in coloration, which also does not differ between juveniles and adults. There are 12 large feathers in an even tail.


Almost all species live in deciduous and coniferous forests. Some species of Asia are also found in shrubs at a height where trees no longer grow. The avifauna of the Russian Federation includes 13 species: willow warbler, chiffchaff warbler, rattle warbler, talovan warbler, green warbler, warbler warbler, red warbler, light-headed warbler, thick-billed warbler, brown warbler, Indian warbler and pale-footed warbler, Yellow warbler (Phylloscopus nitidus). Caucasian (Phylloscopus lorenzii) the warbler, also represented on the territory of Russia, is currently considered by some taxonomists as a subspecies Phylloscopus sindianus.


Warblers build their nest, as a rule, on the ground or directly above the ground, sometimes at an average height in trees. The nests are built in one piece and closed with a side entry. The eggs laid are either completely white or speckled with brownish specks or reddish spots.