Sisters Pip and Macy spend the holidays at their grandparents' house. Restless Macy thirsts for adventure, but life outside the city is too measured.
When the sky above the forest suddenly lights up with a bright flash, Macy can't believe her luck - she's finally going on an adventure! Peep hadn't finished finishing her hot chocolate yet, and Macy had already pulled on her boots and pulled out a flashlight.
A beautiful cozy story about the adventures, fantasy and relationships of sisters from the acclaimed writer and illustrator Helen Kellock.
A red star (M0III) with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.44 (the brightest in the constellation) and a distance of 297 light years. With the star 8, Chanterelles forms a wide optical binary star. 8 Chanterelles are an orange giant (K0III) with a distance of 484 light years and an apparent magnitude of 5.81.
A binary star (K3III) with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.52 and a distance of 328 light years.
HD 189733 (V452 Chanterelles)
A binary star located 0.3 degrees east of Messier 27 in the Dumbbell Nebula. The main object is an orange dwarf (K1.5V), and the second is a red dwarf. The apparent magnitudes are 6.07 and 10.116, and the orbital period is 3200 years. The system is very easy to find with binoculars.
The main star is smaller and dimmer than the Sun. It reaches 82% of the solar mass, 75% of the radius, and only 26.4% of the brightness. Age - 600 million years. This is the BY Dragon variable (brightness changes due to rotation and spotting by 1.5 percent in visible light).
Exoplanet HD 189733 b was found in October 2005. It is hot Jupiter with an orbit close to an orange dwarf. Became the first exoplanet found with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
PSR B1919 + 21
The first pulsar found. It is located at 2,283.12 light years, has a period of 1.3373 seconds, and a pulse duration of 0.04 seconds. From the very beginning, it was designated as CP 1919.
1. Cluster As-Sufi ("Hanger" or Cr 399)
The asterism "Hanger" or the Brokchi cluster was first mentioned in the 10th century by As or Al-Sufi. After in the catalog of foggy objects in the 17th century, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Godiern partially described it. However, it was only in 1920 that the American astronomer D. Brocchi first created a map of this cluster. The brightest 10 stars are shaped like a hanger silhouette. All in all Cr 399 has 40 stars. The angular dimensions are about 70 ′, the brightness is 3.6 m.
Finding the cluster is quite simple - you need to draw a straight line between Altair and Vega and at 1/3 of the distance from Altair there will be a clearly visible faint spot - this is the Brocchi cluster with a Hanger. The Hanger itself is easily distinguishable through binoculars. The best time to watch is July-August.
2. Open star cluster NGC 6802
Near the "Hanger" asterism, on its left side, there is a small, but rather dense open cluster NGC 6802... Despite its very small size (5 ′) and low brightness (8.8 m), it will not be difficult to find it in a telescope.
3. Open star cluster NGC 6823
The open cluster is somewhat larger and brighter than the previous one. NGC 6823... The apparent angular dimensions are slightly more than 7 ′, and the brightness is 7.0 m. Active star formation is taking place in the cluster, and when photographing this deep sky object, red inhomogeneous areas can be distinguished against the background - this is an emission (diffuse) nebula NGC 6820... Under normal visual observation, the red tint is, of course, invisible.
I recommend starting the search for the cluster with the brightest star in the constellation - Anser (sometimes the name Lucida is found), the magnitude of which is 4.4 m. It is an optically double star that can even be resolved through binoculars or your telescope's optical finder.
4. Open star cluster NGC 6830
If you start your journey from a double star α Vul and move towards the cherished planetary nebula "Dumbbell" (M 27), then, bypassing NGC 6823, on the way you will meet another open cluster - NGC 6830.
The cluster was discovered by William Herschel at the end of the 18th century and was included in the open cluster catalog by him. The apparent stellar magnitude is deep-sky - 7.9 m, angular dimensions - 6 ′.
5. Planetary Nebula "Dumbbell" (M 27 or NGC 6853)
The real pearl of this constellation is the Dumbbell planetary nebula (M 27).It is one of the most popular and accessible planetary nebulae for observation with a small-aperture telescope and even binoculars. The angular dimensions of the nebula are 8.0 ′ × 5.7 ′, and the apparent magnitude is 7.4 m.
This object was the first planetary nebuladiscovered by Charles Messier (in 1764).
The nebula is young, according to preliminary estimates of scientists, it is no more than 3500 years old. central part M 27 expanding at a high rate - about 7 ″ per year (for comparison, the angular diameter of Uranus is about 5 ″, and Mars ranges from 4 to 25 ″). Distance to "Dumbbell" is about 1000 light years.
The nebula can be discerned even in the presence of city lighting, but, of course, it is better to choose a moonless night away from the city. The strange dumbbell shape of the nebula can be caught already in a telescope with an aperture of 80 mm or more.
Among Russian observers, M 27 is often referred to as the "Ogryzok" - the bright part of the nebula looks like an incompletely eaten apple, Americans sometimes compare the shape with a cotton boll
In a telescope with a larger aperture, weaker "ears" can be seen on the sides of the bright part of the nebula, which complement its shape to a lemon-shaped. Several stars shine through the nebula's body itself.
You can observe it if you start your search from the star Deneb in constellation swan and lower the telescope tube towards the horizon or push off two bright stars withstars Strelathat lies under the Chanterelle and rise higher.
6. Open star cluster NGC 6885 (C 37)
Large open cluster NGC 6882 occupied two serial numbers at once in the "New General Catalog" (the second 6885). What is the reason for this confusion with the numbers is unknown. Also in Caldwell's catalog one can find a cluster under the number C 37... For example, in the Stellarium computer planetarium, the open cluster is called "Cluster 20 Chanterelles." This is due to the bright 20th star of the constellation and the surrounding less bright gravitationally bound stars.
The angular dimensions of the cluster are 20 ′, and the apparent magnitude is 8.1 m. You can make out about 5 stars through binoculars, the rest of the background ones will become available through a telescope or at least a telescope.
7. Open star cluster NGC 6940
Another open cluster in the constellation Chanterelle is NGC 6940... It was discovered, like the previous clusters, by the English astronomer William Herschel in 1784.
The cluster is very interesting and bright. There are about a hundred stars. At low magnifications, the cluster shape is not uniform, although it does not cause any associations. The brightness of the cluster is 6.3 m, the apparent angular dimensions are 25 ′.
Searching for a constellation in the sky
The chanterelle is located next to two bright constellations of the summer sky - Cygnus and Eagle. Its faint stars are located within the Summer Triangle, making it much easier to find. The closest neighbor to the south is Dolphin. In the east, Chanterelle is bordered by Pegasus. On the north side, the left "wing" of the Cygnus hangs over it, with the help of which you can easily and quickly find the constellation. The chanterelle is clearly visible throughout Russia, since it rises quite high above the horizon. However, its stars can be clearly distinguished only on a clear moonless night. The best observation conditions are in summer and autumn.
The history of the constellation Chanterelle
The constellation Chanterelle has no mythological basis and is relatively young. It was singled out and added to the map of the starry sky by the Polish astronomer Jan Hevelius in 1690. The astronomer named the new constellation "Little Chanterelle with the Goose" and in the atlas depicted it as a small fox carrying a goose caught by it in its teeth.
Later, several attempts were made to single out the Goose as a separate constellation, but this idea was not accepted by astronomers. As a result, the name proposed by Hevelius was reduced to one word "Chanterelle".
"Earth star" vaulted starfish fringed
- Family: Earth stars (Geastraceae).
- Synonyms: starfish fringed, starfish sitting.
Description. The fruit body is yellowish-brown, 3-7 cm in diameter, spherical at first, partially submerged in the soil. Later, its outer shell breaks open and opens with 5-9 lobes.
Individual blades begin to curl as the fruiting body emerges from the ground.
The inner spherical spore-bearing part is light gray, 1–2.5 cm in diameter, round, gray, subsequently with a hole in the upper part for the release of spores. Spore powder chocolate brown. The flesh of young fruit bodies is light and relatively soft, rapidly coarsens with age.
"Earth star" is found in the middle and southern forest parts of the temperate zone of Russia. Fringed starlet mushroom is a forest species that grows in groups or "witch rings" on calcareous soils, bears fruit in August-November.
Similar species. The triple earth star (G. triplex) is distinguished by the presence of a characteristic collar between the star-shaped lobes and the central sac with spores, the reddish earth star (G. rufescens) is distinguished by the reddish color of the fruit bodies.
Traditional and folk medicine. In folk medicine, mature spores are used as a powder, and a chopped young fruiting body is used as a plaster as a hemostatic and antiseptic.
Young fruiting bodies are harvested as a hemostatic and antiseptic plaster, mature spore mass - for powders and the preparation of alcoholic tinctures.
Culinary recommendations. Vaulted starfish is edible at a very young age (in the form of a ball with white flesh), does not require preliminary boiling. Used for frying.
Vaulted earth star with description
- Family: Earth stars (Geastraceae).
- Synonyms: vaulted starfish.
Description. The earthen star fungus is vaulted with medium-sized fruiting bodies, developing first underground or partially submerged, then on the surface of the soil.
The fruiting body is spherical at first, 3-8 cm in diameter, then the outer covering layer (exoperidium) breaks into 3-5 (most often 4) rays, and it becomes vaulted, the rays are often almost vertical, attached by the ends to the mycelial calyx, which is covered outside particles of soil and litter, and whitish to light brown inside. The rays are almost always straight and vertical, raising the fruiting body high above the soil, with tucked edges and looking narrow. Ray length 2-5 cm, width 3-4 cm. The remaining inner part is spherical, on a pedicle 2-3 mm high, gray-brown, at the apex with an indistinctly bordered hole (sometimes). The pulp is initially white; when ripe, it is almost completely transformed into a dark brown spore mass.
Mushroom star and its main types in the photo
The star fungus and its main species prefer sandy soils, grows in deciduous and mixed forests, on forest edges, in parks, shrubs throughout the forest and forest-steppe zone of Russia, and is quite rare everywhere.
It differs well from other earthen stars (see photo) by the characteristic structure of the fruiting body (spore-receptacle, high on the rays above the "bag" sitting in the ground).
Pharmacological and medical properties. The methanol extract of G. fornicatum showed antibacterial activity against various human pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pyotorogenes, as well as antifungal activity against and Kluyveromyces fragilis.
Culinary recommendations. Edible at a very young age (in the form of a ball with white flesh), does not require preliminary boiling. Used for frying.
Sack-shaped star gear: description and properties
- Family: Earth stars (Geastraceae).
- Synonyms: sack-shaped starlet.
Description. Young fruiting bodies, as they ripen, come to the surface of the soil. They are spherical, bulbous or almost bottle-shaped, with a coracoid tubercle, 0.5-3 X 0.6-3.5 cm. Sometimes 2-3 fruiting bodies grow tightly pressed against each other. The surface is smooth or finely wrinkled, yellowish to pale brown. When ripe, the outer shell (exoperidium) opens up to about half the radius into 3-12 (usually 5-9) rays of different shapes. The beams are often bent in the form of a bag under the disk of the outer shell.The width of the open mushroom is 1-5 cm, sometimes (with horizontally open rays) it reaches 10 cm. The upper surface of the rays is first whitish, then pale yellow, nut-brown, soon often falls off, but sometimes remains. The fibrous layer deeper is papery and off-white. The lower, ground surface of the rays is thick, sometimes with longitudinal cracks, velvety, yellowish or brownish on the outside, beige or whitish on the inside.
The spore sac is usually sessile or with a very short stem, spherical, 0.5-2 cm, smooth, light, beige, brownish-gray. The hole for the exit of spores is clearly defined. Mature spore mass is brown, powdery.
Saccular starfish prefers rich soils, grows on decayed wood in deciduous, deciduous and mixed forests, prefers oak forests. Distributed in the southern forest and forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia, rare everywhere.
Similar species. It differs well from other earthen stars by a clear wide "outline" around the central hole on the spore-bearing sac.
Pharmacological and medical properties. A β-glucan-protein complex recently isolated from G. saccatum has shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic (antitumor) activity. It is assumed that the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action is based on the inhibition of the enzymes nitrinoxide synthetase and cyclooxygenase.
Culinary recommendations. Inedible due to its bitter pulp.
- Family: Earth stars (Geastraceae).
- Synonyms: The earthen star is triple, the earthen star is Indian.
Description. Starfish triple has a young fruit body, rounded, with a sharp nose, dirty brown color, up to 5 cm in height and 4 cm in diameter. Later, the outer layer breaks into 4-7 thick rays of isabella, terracotta or beige. When unfolded, the diameter of the fruiting body can reach 12 cm, and the height is 3-8 cm. The central part of the inner layer remains in the form of a characteristic collar under a spherical, sessile (without a leg) pale brown spore-receptacle. At the top of the latter, during maturation, a hole appears for the exit of spores. The pulp of the outer layer is soft, fragile, juicy, its outer layer is denser, elastic, leathery. The spore mass, when ripe, is powdery, olive-brown.
The triple star fungus grows in deciduous and mixed forests, among fallen leaves and needles, often found in parks, squares, gardens. Recorded in the European part of Russia, southern Siberia, Primorsky Krai. Fruiting from August to late October.
Interesting Facts. Among the Blackfoot tribe (Indians of North America), the mushroom was called "ka-ka-toos", which meant "falling star" and, according to legend, the discovery of such mushrooms foreshadowed some supernatural events.
Similar species. In an adult state, the characteristic three-component structure of the fruiting body does not allow the triple starlet mushroom to be confused with any other earthen star.
Pharmacological and medical properties. A number of biologically active substances have been isolated from the fruit bodies of Geastrum triplex. Among them, mention should be made of fungal sterols such as ergosta-4,6,8, (14), 22-tetraene-3-ene, 5,6-dihydroergosterol, ergosterol and peroxyergosterol. Mushrooms also contain various fatty acids (myristic, palminic, stearic, oleic, α-linoleic, linoleic, etc.) that can be used for medicinal purposes.
Traditional and folk medicine. The triple earthen star was used for medical purposes by the Indians of North America. The Cherokee, for example, used the mushroom to heal the navel of newborns to the point of drying out and falling off the umbilical cord, both for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes.
In traditional Chinese medicine, G.triplex has been used to relieve redness (inflammation) of the airways, as well as to stop bleeding and shrink tumors.
Culinary recommendations. It is edible at a very young age, but at this moment it is quite difficult to find it, since the mushroom is almost completely submerged in the soil.
Appearance, parameters and properties
The animal heliotis has a hard shell, or shell. It differs from other invertebrates in the sea by one valve, not two. In appearance it resembles a human ear. The whole body is covered with this shell, there is only one hole for the "leg", thanks to which the animal moves. Lives at a depth of 30 meters.
The mollusk has a muscular body, capable of attaching itself to stones so firmly that it is possible to tear it off only by using a knife. Several types of heliotis are known, and most are listed in the Red Book.
Heliotis stone is a shell formed by limestone and calcium carbonate. The shape is flattened, the last curl is wide. The shell is 7–35 centimeters long. The mother of pearl, which is covered inside the shell, is able to split light into all the colors of the rainbow, passing into each other. Several colors and shades are combined in one stone.
The overflows are so rich and magical that the shell was nicknamed "the Feather of the Firebird."
The hardness of sea mother-of-pearl is high: 5-6 points on the Mohs scale (for other pearl mussels - no more than 4). Pearls of unique design grow in the shell, sometimes very large ones. The record weight is 469 carats.
Where do they find
Nacre is mined in warm sea and ocean waters. Most of all - in the Pacific Ocean - in Australia and America. Clam for mother-of-pearl is caught in Japan, China, the Philippines, and Southeast Asia.
In the Indian Ocean, the mollusk is also found - in the east of Africa. And also in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. It is not found in Russian waters - it is cold.
It is the unsurpassed combination of overflows of color that has become the reason that heliotis has been considered a magic stone for more than two millennia. There is evidence that in ancient times it was identified with currency.
Heliotis stone products
The magical properties of heliotis are that the stone:
- positively affects the microclimate of the home, protects the inhabitants from any manifestation of negativity,
- does not allow pessimistic thoughts, bad desires,
- contributes to the formation of mutual trust,
- forms sympathy for the owner from other people,
- activates the mental and intuitive abilities of a person,
- helps in travel,
- attracts good luck
- protects married couples from the breakdown of marriage, infidelity.
It is believed that the zodiac sign of heliotis is suitable for all representatives. But those born under the constellations of Pisces and Aquarius are simply dear. Aquarians, with his support, will become much more confident, reach the heights of career growth. It will give Pisces energy, will not allow you to commit rash actions and succumb to pessimism.
Pendant with heliotis
According to astrology, talismans, amulets, and other heliotis products are needed by creative people and those who do charity work. Things with the use of mother of pearl are important to have in the house for happiness and peace. Gifts for newlyweds using a stone will become a wish and a guarantee of a happy family life, regardless of who the spouses are according to the horoscope.
|Zodiac sign||Compatibility ("+++" - fits perfectly, "+" - can be worn, "-" - absolutely contraindicated)|
The healing properties of heliotis are surprising. Mother of pearl has a strong energy. Since ancient times, shells have been ground into powder and used in medicine and cosmetics.
- So, pearlescent powder whitens and rejuvenates the skin, removes pigmentation and freckles.
- An important value of the stone in Southeast Asia is considered to be the ability to strengthen the immune system, raise the tone of the body, and prolong the years of active life.
- Earrings with heliotis are recommended for deaf patients. And neck jewelry - beads, necklaces - for respiratory diseases.
- Another property of seashells is to strengthen hair growth, get rid of dandruff and head lice. This is achieved by the constant wearing of a mother-of-pearl comb.
- Even the air can clean the heliotis shells used in the manufacture of the fan: they have an antibacterial effect. For this reason, mother-of-pearl powder was once used by the wounded to prevent blood poisoning and tissue growth.
- They assure that dishes made from heliotis shells improve the quality of food and drinks, their digestibility.
Application in jewelry
What the masters have not come up with, introducing a pebble into jewelry and exclusive household items.
A wide variety of heliotis jewelry is recognized: earrings, necklaces, necklaces, bracelets, brooches, cameos, pendants, rings, signet rings. The main distinguishing feature of the products is the unique pattern of the stone.
The most harmonious look is jewelry set in silver, pewter, cupronickel. Gold is used less often for frames. Heliotis is combined with pearls, jet, turquoise, malachite, coral.
Earrings with heliotis
Prices for sea mother-of-pearl jewelry are affordable. This is especially true for jewelry.
The magic of the original stone from the depths of the sea inspires the manufacturers of luxury items, in particular, world-famous Swiss watches. The dials are decorated with mother-of-pearl, from which the products acquire additional charm.
Heliotis in silver
Caskets, vases, snuff boxes, watches, mirrors, buttons are inlaid with heliotis. Large sinks are used to make dishes.
A skillfully made item, in the design of which there is mother of pearl, is an excellent gift with a positive connotation for the person being gifted.
How to choose and care for
When purchasing a heliotis product for magical or medicinal purposes, listen to your inner voice: he must accept the stone. The frame of the jewelry is preferable to a simple one, the pretentiousness of the abalone is contraindicated, since the brightness and creativity are present in it from the very beginning.
It is better to wear the product with clothes in soothing colors.
The material is durable, but not infinite. During processing, some of the protective properties are lost, therefore jewelry needs careful care.
- It must be protected from contact with other stones. Store separately wrapped in a soft cloth.
- Eliminate contact with cosmetics, otherwise the product will lose its natural shine and beauty.
- Protect from falls, bumps.
- In case of contamination, clean in clean warm water only with a cloth without cleaning agents.
- Do not let the jewelry stale, they require regular "communication" with the human body, from where they draw the necessary moisture. Household items from heliotis need to be sprayed.
Briefly about fakes
It would seem that imitation of heliotis is excluded, because mother-of-pearl can appear only with the participation of a mollusk. But the scammers also found a way out. Decorations are made of cheap plastic and covered with artificial mother-of-pearl. The second option is the addition of dyes to the plastic mass during manufacture.
Jewelry with stone
There are several indicators to distinguish natural mother-of-pearl from artificial fake.
- The original has a unique pattern of composite fragments. If in a necklace, for example, all the stones are the same, this is an obvious fake.
- The reverse side of a real shell is matte, unattractive. In plastic, both sides are decorated in the same way and play with mother-of-pearl.
- It is easy to distinguish a fake by sound. The original has it sonorous and clean.
- If the product is dropped or hit hard, the plastic will crack and the glass will break.
- The shiny surface of the imitation will be erased by a sharp object.A natural shell will withstand such a test without consequences.
Buy and wear original heliotis, because it is he who will bring a lot of good things into your life. Due to the low cost, products made of sea mother-of-pearl are available to everyone. Do not forget that they will serve as an excellent gift for family and friends, and will become a valuable acquisition in every family.