Bird Families

On the ecology of the red-tailed flycatcher Muscicapa ruficauda

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Second edition. First publication: A.A. Bannikova 1990. On the ecology of the red-tailed flycatcher // Ornithology 24: 118-119.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "To the ecology of the red-tailed flycatcher Muscicapa ruficauda"

near the forest plantations of the Dzhanybek station for several days in a row. Once, 3 snake-eaters were encountered, adjoining a large flock of non-nesting black kites Milvus migrans (June 13, 1982). In 1983, one snake eagle stayed in the forest belts of the hospital from July 5 to August 15.

On the autumn migration, the snake-eater is few in number, but single birds are found almost every year, the end dates are August 27 - September 15. It is very rare in autumn and in other parts of the Volga-Ural interfluve. So, on the route Dzhanybek - Ershov - Uralsk - Kalmykovo-Dzhanybek (1850 km) in 1981, only 2 birds were encountered - on August 28, 50 km north-east of Dzhanybek and on September 7, 65 km west of Kalmykov. Usually snake-eaters were found sitting on poles. Probably, they, like other large predators, die from electric current, although no dead birds have been found.

Russian Ornithological Journal 2013, Volume 22, Express issue 839: 155-158

On the ecology of the red-tailed flycatcher Muscícapa ruficauda

Second edition. First published in 1990 *

Information on the ecology of the red-tailed flycatcher Muscícapa ruficauda Swainson 1838 is extremely scarce and concerns mainly distribution, biotopic distribution and individual observations on nutrition. From the territory of the USSR, only two nests are known, found in 1959 by V.V. Leonovich (1962) on the southern slope of the Gissar ridge in the Kondara gorge. One nest contained an egg shell, the other contained a set of 4 non-incubated eggs. Judging by the few findings, red-tailed flycatchers are found at nesting sites from April 30 to May 6 (Ivanov 1969). R.L.Behme and N.A. Sytov (1963) in 1961 noted a massive arrival of red-tailed flycatchers on May 4. R.L.Behme (1975) at the end of June was already caught fledgling.

We observed red-tailed flycatchers in May-July 1983 and 1984 on the southern slope of the Gissar ridge in the Kondara gorge. Maple forests in the upper part of the gorge (Kvak tract, 1800 m above sea level) are the place of the greatest number of this bird. Here

* Bannikova A.A. 1990. On the ecology of the red-tailed flycatcher // Ornithology 24: 118-119.

5 pairs nested on an area of ​​1 km2. In the lower part of the gorge (12001500 m above sea level), 6 singing males of the Red-tailed Flycatcher were counted on a 3-kilometer route.

Nesting. Found 10 nests. The red-tailed flycatcher arranges them in the crowns of old walnuts at a height of 15-25 m from the ground or on maples at a height of 3-12 m.Nests are located on horizontal branches in their middle (5 nests), near-stem (2) parts or are clamped in a fork between trunk and thin vertical branch (3). The nest material contains moss and cobwebs. The outer layer of the nest also contains lichens and pieces of bark. The middle layer is formed by thick blades of grass, the inner layer (lining of the tray) is formed by thin blades of grass, moss and feathers. Dimensions of two nests, mm: nest diameter 74 and 73.5, tray diameter 50 and 44, nest height 38 and 39, tray depth 33 and 24.

In 1984, the construction of the nests was completed in the last days of May (2430 May), and the laying of eggs began immediately. Chicks hatched on June 4-14. The departure from most of the nests occurred in the period from June 16 to June 23. The full clutch in all nests contained 4 eggs. The color of the eggs is cloudy-bluish with smeared specks on the blunt end, or the eggs are almost pure blue on the sharp end and completely light brown on the blunt, and by the middle the brown color turns into small specks. Dimensions of eggs in two nests, mm: 17.5x12.5, 17.0x12.7, 17.8x12.7, 17.2x13.0 and 17.0x13.5, 17.0x15.0, 17.2x14.0, 17.0x13.5.

Only female incubates clutch. Apparently, she also plays the main role in the construction of the nest, since the males sing intensively at this time. The male does not feed the female during the period of nesting and incubation, as in the gray flycatcher Muscícapa striata. The female sometimes does not leave the nest for a long time (up to 3 hours), especially during those hours when it is exposed to direct sunlight. Behaves very carefully near the nest. Having flown up, he sits on its edge, and then with an accurate jump into the tray, and no longer moves. Incubation begins with the last egg and lasts 13-14 days. Chicks hatch at intervals from several minutes to several hours; adult birds take out shells immediately after hatching. Less than 1.5 h after hatching of the first chick, the female begins to carry food. Both the male and the female take part in feeding the chicks of the red-tailed flycatcher, fecal capsules are taken out or eaten. Only the female warms the chicks.

Of interest is the presence of a third individual near some nests of the red-tailed flycatcher. During incubation, the third bird silently keeps nearby, and when chicks appear, it tries to take part in their feeding. However, the male and female of the pair interfere with this by blocking the chicks or aggressively driving off the third

flycatcher from the nest. At the same time, the birds are piercingly circling and jumping at each other.

Growth and development of chicks. Newly hatched chicks have closed eyes and ear openings. Day-old chicks had down on the shoulder, dorsal, supraorbital, occipital, and occipital down pterilia. Their weights were 1.6, 2.0, 2.1, and 2.2 g. On the second day, the shoulder, ulnar, thoracic, cervical, occipital, and parotid pterilia darkened, and in some places the rudiments of hemp appeared. The chicks weighed 3.5, 3.0, 3.95, and 2.7 g. On the 3rd day, the chicks were covered with noticeably grown dark down. Mass 4.9, 4.4, 5.4 and 3.65 g. On the 4th day, the tips of flight tubes appeared. Weight 6.44, 5.8, 6.6 and 5.1 g. On the 5th day, the eyes are in the form of wide slits, the corners of the mouth are white, the light tips of the coverts and the blue ends of the tubes of the outer flight feathers appeared on the pterilia, hemp appeared on the femoral pterilium, hemp barely appeared on the coccygeal pterilium ... Weight 7.7, 7.4, 8.4 and 6.7 g. On the 6th day, the tubules of the wing coverts, back, sides, head, neck, abdominal and coccygeal pterilia opened up and tassels appeared from them, yellowish on the wing and back and white on the belly, tubes of flight feathers have grown noticeably, but there are no brushes yet. The weights are 9.4, 9.25, 10.15 and 8.25 g. On the 7th day, the fluff is still preserved, the longest tassels on the coverts of the chest, abdomen and sides, short tassels from flight tubes appeared. Weight 10.7, 10.7, 11.25 and 9.45 g. On the 8th day, the tubes of the flight feathers opened and bear small webs or long tassels at the ends, the chicks are brownish-gray in color, streaked, the bottom is light, the top is dark.

The relative growth rate and growth constant of chicks, calculated by the formulas of I.I.Shmalgauzen (1935), are 0.27 and 4.86, respectively. The fledgling, found on July 1, had full-fledged flywheels and helmsmen, and flew well. After the chicks emerge, red-tailed flycatchers with broods stay near the nest for another 10-12 days.

Behavior. Red-tailed flycatchers hunt very monotonously. Usually they look for insects by flipping and jumping in the crown. If they hunt from a perch, they make short throws, grabbing prey from the underside of leaves and branches. Vertical flights with a "candle" from bottom to top are most typical for them. In the air, the red-tailed flycatcher rarely catches insects. It has been noticed that the flycatcher especially often collects caterpillars, catches butterflies, dipterans. During the period of nest construction and incubation of clutches, red-tailed flycatchers sing intensively. In addition to the song from the red-tailed flycatcher, you can often hear the call, reminiscent of the very low, dull chirp of a sparrow, emitted when extremely excited.

The red-tailed flycatcher is a species with a pronounced territoriality. Males make special sentries from time to time.

flying. Border conflicts are characterized by prolonged chases and desperate fights, during which birds sometimes fall to the ground and continue to fight in the grass. The boundaries of the protected area are easily determined by the extreme points of the singing of males moving in a circle near the nest. The size of such a territory is from 300 to 700 m2 or more.

Molting. An adult bird caught in a web on July 27 was in a state of intense molting. The back, head and neck were covered with tubules, most of which had unfolded tassels. Throat and chest in fresh feathers. The sides, abdomen, shoulders were in tubules, some feathers had an unfolded fan, but tubules were still preserved at the base of it. The bases of the feathers of the undertail are in tubules. The feathers of the wing coverts are in tubules, but the tassels have already unfolded into the webs; there are several unopened stumps and stumps with barely noticeable tassels. The 3rd from the inside is the secondary flywheel in the hemp, the 7th is in the tube with a brush that has begun to unfold, the 8th is a new one with a cover at the base, the 4th primary flight is in the unopened hemp, the 5th and 6th are new, with covers at the base. In the tail, all 12 helmsmen have just molted.

Liter atur a Boehme R.L. 1975. Birds of the mountains of the South Palaearctic. M .: 1-181.

Boehme R.L., Sytov N.A. 1963. Observations of the spring migration of birds in Gissar

ridge // Izv. Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR. Dept. biol. Sciences 3 (14): 108-111. Ivanov A.I. 1969. Birds of the Pamir-Alai. L .: 1-448.

Leonovich V.V. 1962. On the biology of poorly studied birds in Tajikistan // Byul. MOIP. New ser. Dept. biol. 67, 2: 121-124.

Russian Ornithological Journal 2013, Volume 22, Express issue 839: 158-159

To the diet of the white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla in the Black Sea reserve

Second edition. First published in 1995 *

The white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla arrives at the Black Sea Nature Reserve for the winter. Its number in the reserve is 35-45 individuals. The hunting grounds are represented by the waters of the Tendrovsky and

* Pirogov N.G. 1995. To the nutrition of the white-tailed eagle in the Black Sea reserve // ​​Ornithology 26: 192-193.

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