Bird Families

Warbler: description of the bird, photos, nutrition and reproduction, habitat and main species


    Family Lark - Alaudidae
      White-winged lark (Melanocorypha leucoptera)

Family Swallow - Hirundinidae

    White-fronted mountain swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)

Barn Swallow or Killer Whale (Hirundo rustica)

Berengian Yellow or East Siberian Wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis)

Hawk Warbler.
The underside of the body is whitish with a scaly brown pattern, reminiscent of the color of the chest of a hawk,
for which the bird got its name.

Inhabits Europe eastward to Western Siberia and Central Asia.

Family Long-tailed tits - Aegithalidae

    Long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus)

Family Oriole - Oriolidae
    Common Oriole (Oriolus oriolus)

    Red-tailed Shrike or Red-tailed Shrike (Lanius isabellinus)

Family Corvids - Corvidae
    Kuksha (Perisoreus infaustus)

Family Passerines - Passeridae
    Saxaul Sparrow (Passer ammodendri)

    Reel or Yurok (Fringilla montifringilla)

    Greenfinch or common greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)

    Willow warbler lifestyle and nutrition

    The willow warbler lives mainly in forests, although it is often found in copses and groves. Sometimes it can be found even in parks and squares. River valleys with young birch and alder stands are one of the most popular places for willows.

    Trills of willow warblers are very sonorous.

    One of the main advantages of this bird is its beautiful euphonious singing. Males possess an arsenal of 7 to 20 different types of songs. These songs have a strict structure and sequence of sounds. They are formed at the earliest age of this bird and subsequently reproduced by it with great accuracy. Various variations and combinations of these songs merge into beautiful trills.

    • Brown-cheeked warbler (Phylloscopus laetus
    • Laura's Penny (Phylloscopus laurae
    • Red-headed warbler (Phylloscopus ruficapilla
    • Phylloscopus budongoensis
    • Ugandan Warbler (Phylloscopus umbrovirens
    • Black-capped warbler (Phylloscopus herberti
    • Willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus
    • Canary chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis
    • Chiffchaff warbler (Phylloscopus collybita
    • Iberian warbler (Phylloscopus ibericus
    • Phylloscopus tristis
    • Phylloscopus brehmii
    • Central Asian chiffchaff (Phylloscopus sindianus
    • Iranian warbler (Phylloscopus neglectus
    • Light-bellied warbler (Phylloscopus bonelli
    • Phylloscopus orientalis
    • Ratchet warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    • Brown warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus
    • Smoky Warbler (Phylloscopus fuligiventer
    • Himalayan warbler (Phylloscopus affinis
    • Chinese warbler (Phylloscopus subaffinis
    • Indian warbler (Phylloscopus griseolus
    • Penochka Armanda (Phylloscopus armandii
    • Thick-billed warbler (Phylloscopus schwarzi
    • Golden-striped warbler (Phylloscopus pulcher
    • Gray-throated warbler (Phylloscopus maculipennis
    • Korolkovaya warbler (Phylloscopus proregulus
    • Phylloscopus chloronotus
    • Phylloscopus kansuensis
    • Phylloscopus yunnanensis
    • Himalayan warbler (Phylloscopus subviridis
    • Warbler Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus
    • Dim warbler (Phylloscopus humei
    • Talovka warbler (Phylloscopus borealis
    • Green warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides
    • Yellow-bellied warbler (Phylloscopus nitidus
    • Caucasian Warbler (Phylloscopus lorenzii
    • Pale-footed warbler (Phylloscopus tenellipes
    • Sakhalin warbler (Phylloscopus borealoides
    • Long-billed warbler (Phylloscopus magnirostris
    • Slender-billed warbler (Phylloscopus tytleri
    • Green-winged warbler (Phylloscopus occipitalis
    • Light-headed warbler (Phylloscopus coronatus
    • Idzhim warbler (Phylloscopus ijimae
    • Korobovidny warbler (Phylloscopus reguloides
    • Phylloscopus hainanus
    • Phylloscopus emeiensis
    • White-tailed warbler (Phylloscopus davisoni
    • Black-browed warbler (Phylloscopus cantator
    • Slater's Penny (Phylloscopus ricketti
    • Penochka Cebu (Phylloscopus cebuensis
    • Mountain warbler (Phylloscopus trivirgatus
    • Phylloscopus sarasinorum
    • Phylloscopus presbytes
    • Phylloscopus poliocephalus
    • Philippine Warbler (Phylloscopus olivaceus
    • Phylloscopus makirensis
    • Kulambangrish warbler (Phylloscopus amoenus
    • Phylloscopus rotiensis

    Reproduction of the willow

    In central Russia, the willow warbler appears in early to mid-April. The males are the first to arrive at the nesting sites. They guard their sites so carefully that at first, upon arrival, not only other males, but even females are not allowed on them. After arrival, pairs are formed quite quickly. Almost immediately after the formation of a pair, the female begins to search for the best place for the nest. As soon as the place is found, the female proceeds to the construction. However, if the weather is not good enough, then this process can be very delayed. Males sing very intensively in the period after arrival until the beginning of the construction of the nest. When the female begins to build the nest, the singing intensity drops dramatically. This is due to the fact that during construction, the male is busy protecting the female. Most of the time he follows the female, singing a low song.

    Willow warbler nest and egg clutch.

    The nest is usually located on the surface of the ground. From above, it is masked by dry grass and foliage. The nest is in the shape of a ball with a side entry. The material for its construction is moss, dry blades of grass, needles and roots. The litter at the bottom of the nest consists of small stems and feathers.

    The female begins to lay eggs from the beginning of May. One clutch contains from 4 to 8 eggs. These eggs are white with brown spots. In Europe, birds make 2 clutches in one season. In Russia, in most habitats, willow warblers make only one clutch of eggs per season. Only in the southern regions of our country do birds make 2 clutches. The eggs are incubated exclusively by the female. The incubation period lasts up to 2 weeks. Parents feed the emerging chicks with medium-sized food, such as aphids, spiders, mosquitoes and small caterpillars. In 2 weeks after birth, the chicks already fly out of the nest. After departure, the parents continue to feed the offspring for a week. Sexual maturity in these birds occurs at the age of about a year.

    Willow warblers live for about 12 years.

    The European population of Willow Warblers is estimated to be up to 40 million pairs. The life span of some individuals reaches 12 years.

    Home content

    These cute birds are often kept at home by bird lovers. Caring for them is not difficult at all and will not cause problems even for novice bird breeders. Only at the beginning can the warblers behave restlessly in the cage. In this case, the cage is covered with tissue.

    I must say that these babies very quickly get used to captivity and after two weeks they can be released to fly around the apartment. Chickweed are endowed with a calm and peaceful character, they easily get along with other species. But do not leave several males together, who can start a fight over the female.

    Willow warbler subspecies

    There are three subspecies of willow warblers.
    Subspecies differ in the size of individuals and their color. There are three main subspecies of the willow warbler:

    • Ph. t. yakutensis Ticehurst - lives on the territory from the Anadyr River to the Yenisei River,
    • P. t. acredula Linnaeus - found from the Yenisei to the west to the southern part of the Carpathians and Fennoscandia,
    • Ph. t. trochilus Linnaeus - inhabits the territory from Poland, southern Sweden and the Carpathians to the western border of the range. South to Italy, Yugoslavia, central France and northern Romania. Separate colonies of this subspecies are found in Sicily, the Pyrenees and the Apennine Peninsula.

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    Pencils are small with a slender build. Compared to warblers (Sylvia

    ) they have a shorter tail and longer legs. The beak is thin. In general, warblers are painted in very inconspicuous and low-contrast colors, and many species are very similar to each other. The plumage is predominantly yellow, green or brown, the underside is usually lighter. Some Asian species are characterized by light framing of the wings and tail, as well as light stripes above the eyes. A common feature of all species is the absence of sexual dimorphism in coloration, which also does not differ between juveniles and adults. There are 12 large feathers in an even tail.


    Breeds in Eurasia west of the Alazeya basin and the middle reaches of the Kolyma. To the north, it rises to 67-69 ° N. sh., reaching Taimyr in the area of ​​the 72nd parallel. The southern border of the nesting sites runs approximately along the southern border of forests, although isolated populations are found in northwest Africa, western Turkey and northwest Iran. In most of its range, it is a migratory bird, although in nesting places it usually appears earlier than other migrants and flies away one of the last. Winters in Southern Europe, Africa, the Middle East and South Asia.

    In nesting places in the forest belt, it settles in sparse forests, clearings with tall trees and undergrowth, among which it makes its nests. As a rule, he chooses places with trees not lower than 5 m in height, and the lower tier of tall grass, like bracken or nettle fern. In Western Europe, it prefers deciduous and mixed forests - for example, observations in the area of ​​Oxford in Great Britain showed the dominance of English oak (Quercus robur), pseudoplatanus maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and common ash (Fraxinus exelsior), as well as thickets of raspberries. In Siberia, on the contrary, it prefers forests with an admixture of dark coniferous species.

    In general, the nesting biotope is quite specific, and noticeably differs even from other closely related species of warblers - for example, the willow warbler prefers younger and shorter trees, while the ratchet prefers less dense undergrowth. In the tundra and forest-tundra, it occurs in the floodplains of rivers with bushes along the banks. In places of winter migration, it is less dependent on woody vegetation, and in addition to areas also occurs in shrub thickets. Unlike the willow warbler, which is quite tolerant to arid landscapes, the chiffchaff usually stays near water. In recent years, due to the general warming of the climate in Western Europe, there has been a tendency for the expansion of the winter range to the north - for example, birds are often concentrated in the coastal regions of southern England and in the vicinity of London. At the same time, some of the birds lead a sedentary lifestyle, and some belonging to the subspecies abietinus and tristis move from more eastern regions.

    Red-headed king

    The size of the bird does not exceed 9 cm, the weight reaches 7 g, but on average is 5.1 g. This beautiful bird owes its name to a red spot on its head. The back is yellow-green, the ends of the wings are dark, and the breast is gray-white. The head is black, with two stripes around the eyes and a bright crest.

    Have red-headed beetle a large head and a short neck, so that usually the bean almost resembles a ball. Distributed from Europe to Africa. Prefers to nest in deciduous, rarely mixed forests, but most of all loves oak forests. Like all beetles, it chooses small arthropods with soft shells for feeding.

    Natural enemies

    These little birds have quite a few natural enemies. In the European part, these are foxes, wild cats and birds of prey. For birds living in Asia, snakes and lizards are added to them. Predators are especially dangerous for nests. After all, eggs and chicks are very easy prey, and green chicks often nest right on the ground.

    It is interesting! Among the factors influencing the life and number of these birds, the main one is anthropogenic.

    Deforestation, drainage of water bodies, and agricultural activities have a negative impact on the number of green chiffchaff. But due to the large number of these birds, their population remains at a high level.

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    Yellow-headed beetle

    Length rarely exceeds 9 cm, weight up to 7 g. Yellow-headed beetle stands out from the bird fraternity thanks to a yellow tuft with a black edging, reminiscent of a rich headdress. The gray plumage of the head turns into an olive-green back, the bottom is gray-olive.

    In northern latitudes, the kinglet acts as a replacement for hummingbirds, so this bird is fast and light. The distribution area is unusually wide. You can meet the yellow-headed kinglet on the shores of the Black Sea, in Karelia, in the forests of the Caucasus and Altai. Also found on Sakhalin and even the Kuril Islands.

    It prefers to settle in coniferous, less often mixed forests, where it builds its round nests with a small flight hole. These nests are suspended quite high, at a height of 6-8 m, less often - up to 15 m, and are well camouflaged in the branches.

    Ⓘ Sakhalin warbler

    Previously considered a subspecies of the pale-footed warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes. Differences in the vocalization of the pale-footed and Sakhalin warblers served as the main reason for the isolation of the latter as an independent species. Recently, this has been confirmed by comparing their mtDNA.

    1. Description

    Wing length of males 64.6 - 68.4, females 61.7 and 62.0, on average 66.5 and 61.9 mm, tarsus of males 18.7 - 20.9, females 18.7 - 19.2, on average 20.1 and 19 mm, weight 8.5-10.7 g. Unlike the pale-footed warbler, the head and the nape are dark gray, the back and upper tail are greenish. Legs are pink.

    3. Migrations

    In spring, the first warblers appear in Japan between April 17 and May 5, in the south of Sakhalin in the first ten days of May. Intensive arrival - in the second half of May. Departure for wintering - in the second half of August-September.

    4. Habitats

    On Sakhalin it settles in different types of forests, from valley alder-willow to mountain dark-coniferous-birch at altitudes up to 1000 m above sea level. Prefers slopes cut by mountain streams and ravines, littered with trees with upturned roots and covered with thickets of bushes and grasses. Often it keeps close to steep river banks.

    5. Nesting

    Nests. They are placed in various shelters and are not visible from the outside. The nest is a massive structure, often rounded, less often oval, while its width usually exceeds the height, its sides and bottom are thick, there is always a roof and a notch. The shape of the sockets depends on the size of the recesses chosen for them. Nests are made from thin pieces of roots and branches of green moss soaked with water 70 - 80% of the amount of nesting material. Sometimes scraps of sedge leaves and Kuril bamboo are used. The nest trays are lined with pieces of thin roots and stalks, sprigs of green moss, "fluff" from fern shoots, and animal hair.

    Masonry. 6 - 7 white eggs. Dimensions: 14.5 - 16.5 x 11.0 - 13.0 mm. Incubation lasts 12-13 days.