Bird Families

Japanese Robin - Larvivora akahige, view

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  • Superclass Tetrapoda Class Birds Aves
  • Order Passeriformes - Passeriformes
  • Suborder Singing Passerines - Oscines group Passerida
  • Superfamily Flycatchers - Muscicapoidea
  • Family Flycatchers - Muscicapidae
  • Subfamily Mint - Saxicolinae
  • Genus Robins (robins) - Erithacus (currently assigned to the subfamily Chekana - Saxicolinae in the family Flycatchers - Muscicapidae)

The subspecies are known:
Erithacus akahige akahige - on Sakhalin I, Northern Japan and further to southern China
Erithacus akahige rishirensis - Rishin Is
Erithacus akahige tanensis - southern Japan and Izu island

The subspecies Erithacus (Luscinia) akahige akahige is vagrant. Pairs of birds were recorded on June 6, 1965 in the town of Klyuchi and on June 19, 1966 at the river. Klyuchevskaya (Kamchatka).

Materials (edit)

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Number of species in "sister" taxa

viewJapanese zaryankaLarvivora akahigeTemminck1835
genusNightingale blueLarvivoraHodgson1837
familyFlycatchersMuscicapidaeVigors1825
superfamilyFlycatchersMuscicapoidea
infraorderPasserinesPasserida
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fantail Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
classBirdsAves
superclassFour-leggedTetrapodaBroili1913
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
suprasectionEumetazoiEumetazoa
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa
kingdomAnimalsAnimalia
super-kingdomNuclearEukaryotaChatton1925
empireCellular

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of the intraspecific one. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise at all by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

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